The Maya Ruins of Copán
What is Copán?
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How to get there History of Copán Copán today
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For those of you with an interest in either history, archaelogy, or anthropology, the western corner of Honduras hides an absolute gem for you.
What is Copán?
Copán was once one of the most beautiful and important cities of the Maya civilization - one of the great ancient cultures of the American continent. Today, the ruins of Copán is one of the richest archeological sites to be found in the entire American continent and a mayor tourist attraction. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Where is Copán?
The ruins of Copán are located in the valley of the same name, in the west corner of Honduras, near the border with neighbouring Guatemala. The Copán valley is 12.5km from east to west and 2 to 4km from north to south. The modern town of Copán Ruinas is within walking distance from the main archeological site and has many hotels offering accommodation for a wide range of travel budgets.
How to get there
You can get to Copán driving either from Tegucigalpa or from San Pedro Sula. From Tegucigalpa you would drive through Gracias, which is one of the most beautiful colonnial cities in Honduras. If you did it from San Pedro Sula, you would drive through Santa Bárbara, an area known for hand-made hats and other interesting straw-woven handcrafts. Either way, you'd be on roads winding up and down the Honduran mountains, which makes for both beautiful natural scenery and a very interesting drive.
Copán can also be reached by road from Guatemala, the border a few kilometers due west.
Photo by Juan Bendeck.
History of Copán
Birth of a Dynasty
Archaelogists believe that by 200AD there already was a thriving tribal settlement in the valley of the Copán river, in western Honduras. But they were neither as prosperous nor as advanced as the Maya. But that changed dramatically in 426A.D. when a Maya prince arrived from central México, took control of the city, and crowned himself king. He was called K'inich Yax K'uk Moh, which in Maya meant "Green Quetzal Makaw" or "Shining Quetzal Makaw" and he would be the first in a great Maya dynasty.
The Great Age of Copán
The rulers of Copán were able to sustain their political and military power for 400 years, with a dynasty of 16 kings (called "ahaus") overseeing the city's growth and expansion. Gradually Copán gained more military and political importance within the Maya world. The city prospered and its population grew. They traded with other Maya cities in the region. They constructed increasingly greater and more ambitious ceremonial buildings, and comissioned lavish works of art. As in other cities in the Maya world, new temples were built on top of older ones, each iteration being larger and taller the previous one.
Every city in the Maya world is know for being "specialized" at something. Tikal, for example, is known for the sheer height of its pyramids. Copán is known for the amount and quality of the carved stone sculptures that decorated its ceremonial center.
Below is an artistic rendition of what the ceremontial center of Copán may have looked like at the height of Copán's splendor in the mid IX century, by arquitect and mayanist Tatiana Proskouraikoff.
Painting by Tatiana Proskouriakoff
Below is ThisIsHonduras's own effort: a virtual tour of Copán's ceremonial center, using a 3D modelling and animation software to create a reconstruction.
NOTE: The 3D model that ThisIsHonduras presents here is a first trial version - not all structures, monuments, and statues know to have existed in Copán's "Maing Group" are shown in the model, and those that are, have basic representative geometrical features only. None of the houses that are known to have sorrounded the ceremonial centre are shown and the topography of the mountains around the valley is only roughly representative. A more complete 3D model with higher level of detail, accurate valley topography, and showing more structures in the valley is being created as you read this.
Given the success of the people of Copán in the fields of architecture, sculpture, mathematics, and astronomy, one would imagine that they were a very resourceful and prosperous culture. But their culture eventually fell into decline. Why? There is no single reason for this, but a combination of at least three factors: war, land use, and disease.
War and politics
Upon initial inspection of archeological remains throughout Mesoamerica, the Maya civilization could easily be mistaken for an empire, such as the Inca established in the Andes, but the Maya political system was different: instead of a united and centralized government , their culture was formed by individual and independent city states, each with it's own religious and political leaders and its own military force. The Maya city-states did trade and cooperate with each other, but also frequently waged war against each other.
Through warfare, Copán established rule over a neighboring city, Quiriguá, and regularly demanded tribute from its inhabitants. Eventually Quiriguá grew weary of this and in 738AD took military action against Copán. Quiriguá's warriors succeded in capturing and executing the 13th ruler of Copán, Waxaklajuun Ub'aah Kawil (commonly know as "18 Rabbit"). This marked the beginning of the end for Copán. The 15th ruler, K'ak Yipyaj Chan K'awiil, managed to keep Copán going for a a few years, but by the time the 16th ruler, Yax Pasah rose to the throne, Copán was in steady decline. It wasn't simply a matter of avoiding war with other cities - there were two other problems that by then were out of control.
Sadly, the Maya had no sense of sustainable growth: as the city grew both in size and population, the Maya cut away deeper and deeper into the jungle, with a slash-and-burn agriculture method that yielded poorer crops each year. They did not use their land effeceintly either: the higher social classes increasingly occupied the land near the Copán river to build their homes - precisely the land that should have been used for farming. By 850AD the population of Copán had risen to 20,000 and the valley could hardly provide substinence for them. This pattern of growth and decline happened not only in Copán, but in other Maya city-states in the region. In a way, the Maya were victims of their own success.
By studying burials at Copán, anthropologists know that by the VIII century the people of Copán suffered from both malnutrition and disease. This was probably linked to their poor agricultural methods. Additionaly, anthropologists have identified a decaying trend in their life expentancy - Copán's people were dying younger and younger.
The lost city
After Yax Pasah died, the following king, U Cit Tok, tried but failed to take the throne 822A.D. - the city was already collapsing. All that remains of U Cit Tok's reign is a single unfinished altar (know as Altar L) near Copán's Ball Court. Then the archaelogical record falls grimly silent: construction of monuments halted and production of artworks ceased. All evidence suggests that during the next 100 years the Maya gradually abandoned Copán. By 900AD only a tenth of the population was still present in the valley. Over the following centuries, the jungle reclaimed the land that it had once given to the Maya for them to build their great city.
The lost city is found... and found... and found yet again
Nearly 600 years passed before anyone took any interest in the city again. In 1576, Spanish surveyor Diego García del Palacio wrote a haunting description of the remains of the Mayan city in a report to the king of Spain, Felipe II. However, no effort to explore or study the ruins was made.
In 1834, Honduran army general José Galindo described the site in a report to the Federal Government of Central America. Unfortunately, the Central American Federation's agitated political situation prevented any resources from being directed to investigation of the site. Copán would have to wait several years more.
Galindo might failed in attracting the attention of the government, but he certainly succeded in capturing the imagination of John Lloyd Stephens, an American diplomat, adventurer, and writer of travel books. Inspired by Galindo's report, Stephens decided to organize an expedition to southern Mexico and Central America. Using his connections, he managed to secure the post of Ambassador of the United States to the Central American Federation and even got the the American government to fund his expedition, which set off in 1838.
One of the members of Stephens's expediton was British egyptologist, architect, and painter Frederick Catherwood. Stephenson and Catherwood visited no less than 40 sites throught the Maya world. In particular, they spent several weeks surveying the Copán site, with Catherwood making stylish paintings of the monuments and buildings of Copán, as they lay trapped by the jungle.
Stephens saw the value of Copán both as an archeological site and a potential tourist attraction. So he bought the place. According to the generally accepted story, he purchased the land were the ruins of the Maya city stood from the owner - one of the local farmers - for only $50.00! This was probably a good deal for the farmer, as the local people and the Catholic priests considered the area to be a "bad place", filled with "strange stones" and "pagan idols".
In 1841 Stephens and Catherwood published a book titled "Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan", in which they described their travels through the region. Illustrated with engravings based on Catherwood's exquisite paintings, the book was a publishing success and made both men famous. More importantly, it was the most detailed description of the remains of the Maya culture ever to be published until then and the first one to be distributed internationally. It introduced the Maya culture to the world and sparked enough interest to launch a series of archaelogical expeditions.
Archeological Expeditions to Copán
Stephens's expedition was only the beginning. British archeologist Alfred Maudslay organised hiw own expedition in 1881, followed by a team from Harvard University's Peabody Museum in 1891 - they stayed at Copán for 3 years. Another expedition was organised by archaelogist Herbert Spinden in 1913, which produced a book about Maya art. The Carnegie Institute conducted an extensive restauration project of Copán from 1934 to 1942. The effort was continued from 1952 by the Instituto Hondureño de Atropología e Historia (Honduran Institute for Anthropology and History). By far the largest and most enduring archeological proyect at Copán is Proyecto Arqeológico Copán, which started in 1977 with participation of both North-American and Honduran archeologists. Having changed format and name several times, the project carries on to this day.
Archeological exploration of the Copán site continues even as you read this. Thousands of earth mounds of different sizes, covered with grass and trees, have been identified in the valley and the sorrounding hills, and they are indeed hiding Maya structures, but are yet to be studied.
The valley of Copán extends for approximately 10 square miles and the remains of Maya stone monuments, structures, and pyramids can be found almost anywhere in it. The greatest concentration of archeological remains is found at the ruin of what used to be Copán's main ceremonial complex, built at the center of the valley, known today as "The Main Group". Sorrounding this, and extending east and west over the valley, there are ruins of many houses grouped into several "neighborhoods". There was once a second and smaller ceremonial center were the modern town of Copán Ruinas is built, but it was demolished during the early XX century.
There are several museums devoted to Maya culture and to Copán specifically. There are two museums within walking distance of "The Main Group" and there is a smaller museum in the the town of Copán Ruinas.
Archeologists regard Copán as a city of outstanding cultural and intellectual importance in the Maya world. In 1980, UNESCO named Copán a World Heritage Site .
The best-known and most visited area in the valley is called "The Main Group" - it is the ruin of a ceremonial complex of stone temples, altars, carved stone statues, and other ceremonial structures of different types, extending over 3 hectares. The map below show the layout of the "Main Group".
A map is OK to get an idea of the scale of a place, but it is a bit two-dimensional. Below are two photos of a scale model housed at the Visitor's Centre at the entrance of the Copán archeological park.
Features of The Main Group
There are far too many interesting and important features on the site to describe all of them. Below are descriptions and photographs of the more prominent ones.
The North Plaza (or Plaza of the Stelae)
The Great Plaza is home to tome of the most beautiful examples of sculpture in Copán.
The single most important feature of the site is probably the Petroglyph Staircase: a stone staircase built on the side of a 30-meter high pyramidal structure. It is not only impressive due to its sheer size and artistic value, but also because it is actually a historical document built on a monumental scale. The stone blocks that make up the staircase contain 2200 petroglyphs and together are the single longest stone-carved text ever found in pre-Columbian America. Unfortunately, when the structure was found by early archeological expeditions in the XIX century, it was in a state of extreme decay and was re-assembled with neither any understanding of the Maya language nor any knowledge of the correct sequence of the stone blocks. Today, nobody knows the complete details of the story the staircase was meant to narrate. What is known is that it is a story about the 16 kings of Copán, starting with Yax K'uk Moh at the bottom step and ending with the death of "18 Rabbit" at the 61st step at the top. It is believed that the story does place emphasis on the 12th king, K'ak Uti Ha K'awiil, whose burial was found deep inside the pyramid that supports the staircase. It is also known that construction of the staircase was started by the 14th ahau of Copán, K'ak Joplaj Chan K'awiil, and was completed in 753A.D. by the 15th king of Copán, K'ak Yipyaj Chan K'awiil.
Painting by T. Proskouriakoff
The Ball Court
Another interesting feature of the Copán site is the known as the Ball Court: two stone buildings, similar to shallow and elongated pyramids, aligned parallel to and facing each other to flank a rectangular area on the ground between them, were Maya warriors played a sacred and fierce ball game filled with religious symbolism. This type of ritualized game was common in Mesoamerican cultures and every city had a ball court (sometimes more than one), with the rules of the game changing slightly from city to city and also over time. The architecture of the ball court itself would change as well to accommodate for this, which means that no two ball courts in Mesoamerica are exactly identical.
The ball court that stands today at Copán is not the original one. Arqueologists have found evidence of two older ballcourts in approximately the same location, the first one built during Yax K'uk Mo's lifetime, in the V century A.D. The existing ball court was built during "18 Rabbit"'s reign.
One of the most important pieces found at Copán is known as Altar Q. Its importance lies in that not only is one of the most elaborate and beautiful examples of Maya artwork found on the site, but also in that it is a complete historical document that depicts 16 of the 17 kings of Copán in carved stone.
Photos by A. Villatoro
Altar Q was commisioned by Yax Pasaj Chan Choat, 16th ruler of Copán, and was dedicated in 775A.D. The top of the altar is a flat square surface carved with petroglyphs narrating the arrival of Yax K'uk Moh at Copán in 426A.D. and his assention to power.
Each of the four vertical faces of the altar shows 4 ahaus. At the center of the west face, Yax Pasaj is seen receiving a staff from Yax K'uk Moh, the founder of the dynasty. Then, starting from Yax K'uk Moh's left and moving around to the north, east, south faces, and then back to west face, the other 14 ahaus of the dynasty are shown in chronological order, all seated together as if they were alive at the same time and gathered for a meeting. Thus, the altar does not depict a real historical event, but cleverly and simultanesously accomplishes two things for Yax Pasaj: it graphically reinforces his right to the throne by depicting all of his predecessors in sequence, while symbolically linking him directly with the founder of the dynasty.
The Visitor's Centre
At the entrance to Copán's main archeological park, there is a visitor's centre that doubles as a museum, though it is relatively small. One very interesting item to be viewed at the Centre is a very detailed scale model of Copán's "Main Group", as it would have looked in the IX century.
The largest and newest museum, located on the western edge of the Main Group. It houses a variety of monumental Maya works of art, both originals and reproductions. The "piéce de résistance" in this museum is a complete, full-size, full-color replica of Rosalila.
There is an older museum in the heart of the town of Copán Ruinas, in front of the town's plaza. The exhibits in this museum focus on the history of the Mayan culture and the city of Copán itself, as well as showcasing works of Mayan stone sculpture and pottery. Two important pieces stand out in this museum: the original Altar Q and a reproduction of the lavish burial of a Mayan tribal healer - which includes pieces of pottery, seashells, and the remains of a sacrificed jaguar.
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