Copán

Honduras
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For those of you with an interest in either history, archaelogy, or anthropology, the western corner of Honduras hides an absolute gem for you.

What is Copán?

Copán was once one of the most beautiful and important cities of the Maya civilization - one of the great ancient cultures of the American continent.   Today, the ruins of Copán is one of the richest archeological sites to be found in the entire American continent and a mayor tourist attraction.   It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Where is Copán?

Map of western Honduras

Map of western Honduras,
showing location of the Copán site

Map by ThisIsHonduras

The ruins of Copán are located in the valley of the same name, in the west corner of Honduras, near the border with neighbouring Guatemala.  The Copán valley is 12.5km from east to west and 2 to 4km from north to south.  The modern town of Copán Ruinas is within walking distance from the main archeological site and has many hotels offering accommodation for a wide range of travel budgets.

How to get there

You can get to Copán driving either from Tegucigalpa or from San Pedro Sula.   From Tegucigalpa you would drive through Gracias, which is one of the most beautiful colonnial cities in Honduras.  If you did it from San Pedro Sula, you would drive through Santa Bárbara, an area known for hand-made hats and other interesting straw-woven handcrafts.  Either way, you'd be on roads winding up and down the Honduran mountains, which makes for both beautiful natural scenery and a very interesting drive.

Copán can also be reached by road from Guatemala, the border a few kilometers due west.

Copán Ruinas

The town of Copán Ruinas.

Photo by Juan Bendeck.

History of Copán

Birth of a Dynasty

Archaelogists believe that by 200AD there already was a prosperous tribal settlement in the valley of the Copán river, in western Honduras.  But they were neither as prosperous nor as advanced as the Maya.  But that changed dramatically in 426A.D. when a Maya prince arrived from central México, took control of the city, and crowned himself king.  He was called K'inich Yax K'uk Moh, which in Maya meant "Green Quetzal Makaw" or "Shining Quetzal Makaw" and he would be the first in a great dynasty.

K'inich Yax K'Uk Moh

Clay statue of K'inich Yax K'uk Moh,

decorating the lid of an incense burner

The Great Age of Copán

The rulers of Copán were able to sustain their political and military power for 400 years, with a dynasty of 16 kings (called "ahaus") overseeing the city's expansion.  Gradually Copán gained more military and political importance within the Maya world.  The city prospered and its population grew.  They traded with other Maya cities in the region.  The constructed greater and more ambitious ceremonial buildings, and comissioning lavish works of art.  As in other cities in the Maya world, new temples were built on top of older ones, with each iteration being larger and taller the previous one.

Artist's rendition of Copán

Artistic rendition of what the main ceremonial centre of the city of Copán
could have looked like in 850AD.  The original course of the Copán river is shown.

Painting by Tatiana Proskouriakoff

Copán's decline

Given the success of the people of Copán in the fields of architecture, sculpture, mathematics, and astronomy, one would imagine that they were a very resourceful and prosperous culture. But their culture eventually fell into decline.  Why?  There is no single reason for this, but a combination of at least three factors: war, land use, and disease.

War and politics

Upon initial inspection of archeological remains throughout Mesoamerica, the Maya civilization could easily be mistaken for an empire, like the Inca established in the Andes, but the Maya political system was different: instead of a united and centralized system, their world was formed by individual and independent city states that often competed against each other on the battlefield.

Through warfare, Copán established rule over a neighboring city, Quiriguá, and regularly demanded tribute from its inhabitants.  Eventually Quiriguá grew weary of of Copán's rule and in 738AD took military action against Copán.  Quiriguá's warriors succeded in capturing and executing the 13th ruler of Copán, Waxaklajuun Ub'aah Kawil (commonly know as "18 Rabbit").   This marked the beginning of the end for Copán.  The 15th ruler, K'ak Yipyaj Chan K'awiil, managed to stabilize Copán for a a few years, but by the time the 16th ruler, Yax Pasah rose to the throne, Copán was in steady decline.  It wasn't simply a matter of avoiding war with other cities - there were two other problems that by then were out of control.

Land use

Sadly, the Maya had no sense of sustainable growth: as the city grew both in size and population, the Maya cut away deeper and deeper into the jungle, with a slash-and-burn agriculture method that yielded poorer crops each year.  They did not use their land effeceintly either: the higher social classes increasingly occupied the land near the Copán river to build their homes - precisamente the land that should have been used for farming.  By 850AD the population of Copán had risen to 20,000 and the valley could hardly provide substinence for them.  This pattern of growth and decline happened not only in Copán, but in other Maya city-states in the region.  In a way, the Maya were victims of their own success.

Disease

By studying burials at Copán, anthropologists know that by the VIII century the people of Copán suffered from both malnutrition and disease.  This was probably linked to their poor agricultural methods.  Additionaly, anthropologists have identified a decaying trend in their life expentancy - Copán's people were dying younger and younger.

The lost city

After Yax Pasah died, the following king, U Cit Tok, tried but failed to take the throne 822A.D. - the city was already collapsing.  All that remains of U Cit Tok's reign is a single unfinished altar (know as Altar L) near Copán's Ball Court.  Then the archaelogical record falls grimly silent: construction of monuments halted and production of artworks ceased.  All evidence suggests that during the next 100 years the Maya gradually abandoned Copán.  By 900AD only a tenth of the population was still present in the valley.  Over the following centuries, the jungle reclaimed the land that it had once given to the Maya for them to build their great city.

The lost city is found... and found... and found yet again

Nearly 600 years passed before anyone took any interest in the city again.  In 1576, Spanish surveyor Diego García del Palacio wrote a haunting description of the remains of the Mayan city in a report to the king of Spain, Felipe II.  However, no effort to explore or study the ruins was made.

In 1834, Honduran army general José Galindo described the site in a report to the Federal Government of Central America.  Unfortunately, the Central American Federation's agitated political situation prevented any resources from being directed to investigation of the site.  Copán would have to wait several years more.

John Lloyd Stephens

Galindo might failed in attracting the attention of the government, but he certainly succeded in capturing the imagination of John Lloyd Stephens, an American diplomat, adventurer, and writer of travel books.  Inspired by Galindo's report, Stephens decided to organize an expedition to southern Mexico and Central America.  Using his connections, he managed to secure the post of Ambassador of the United States to the Central American Federation and even got the the American government to fund his expedition, which set off in 1838.

One of the members of Stephens's expediton was British egyptologist, architect, and painter Frederick Catherwood.  Stephenson and Catherwood visited no less than 40 sites throught the Maya world.  In particular, they spent several weeks surveying the Copán site, with Catherwood making stylish paintings of the monuments and buildings of Copán, as they lay partially trapped by the jungle.

Stephens saw the value of Copán both as an archeological site and a potential tourist attraction. So he bought the place. He purchased the land were the ruins of the Maya city stood from one of the local farmers for only $50.00.  This was probably considered a good deal by the farmer, as the local people and the Catholic priests considered the area to be a "bad place", filled with "strange stones" and "pagan idols".

In 1841 Stephens and Catherwood published a book titled "Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan", in which they described their travels through the region.  Illustrated with engravings based on Catherwood's exquisite paintings, the book was a publishing success and made both men famous.  More importantly, it was the most detailed description of the remains of the Maya culture ever to be published until then and the first one to be distributed internationally.  It introduced the Maya culture to the world and sparked enough interest to launch a series of archaelogical expeditions.

One of the stelae at Copán, as found by the Stephenson/Catherwood expedition

Painting by Frederick Catherwood

Stela H

Painting by Frederick Catherwood

Stela D and the two-headed altar to Chac

Painting by Frederick Catherwood

Area now called "The North Plaza" of Copán, as found by the Stephenson/Catherwood expedition

Painting by Frederick Catherwood

Archeological Expeditions to Copán

Stephens's expedition was only the beginning.  British archeologist Alfred Maudslay organised hiw own expedition in 1881, followed by a team from Harvard University's Peabody Museum in 1891 - they stayed at Copán for 3 years.  Another expedition was organised by archaelogist Herbert Spinden in 1913, which produced a book about Maya art.  The Carnegie Institute conducted an extensive restauration project of Copán from 1934 to 1942.  The effort was continued from 1952 by the Instituto Hondureño de Atropología e Historia (Honduran Institute for Anthropology and History).  By far the largest and most enduring archeological proyect at Copán is Proyecto Arqeológico Copán, which started in 1977 with participation of both North-American and Honduran archeologists.  Having changed format and name several times, the project carries on to this day.

Archeological exploration of the Copán site continues even as you read this.  Thousands of earth mounds of different sizes, covered with grass and trees, have been identified in the valley and the sorrounding hills, and they are indeed hiding Maya structures, but are yet to be studied.

Copán Today

The valley of Copán extends for approximately 10 square miles and the remains of Maya stone monuments, structures, and pyramids can be found almost anywhere in it.  The greatest concentration of archeological remains is found at the ruin of what used to be Copán's main ceremonial complex, built at the center of the valley, known today as "The Main Group".  Sorrounding this there are ruins of many houses grouped into several "neighborhoods".  There was once a second and smaller ceremonial center were the modern town of Copán Ruinas is built, but it was demolished during the early XX century.

There are several museums devoted to Maya culture and to Copán specifically. There are two museums within short walking distance of "The Main Group" and there is a smaller museum in the the town of Copán Ruinas.

Archeologists regard Copán as a city of outstanding cultural and intellectual importance in the Maya world.  In 1980, UNESCO named Copán a World Heritage Site .

The Main Group

The best-known and most visited area in the valley is called "The Main Group" - it is the ruin of a ceremonial complex of stone temples, altars, carved stone statues, and other ceremonial structures of different types, extending over 3 hectares.  The map below show the layout of the "Main Group".

Map of Copán Ruins

Map of "The Main Group" at Copán

 

A map is OK to get an idea of the scale of a place, but it is a bit two-dimensional.  Below are two photos of a scale model housed at the Visitor's Centre at the entrance of the Copán archeological park.


Aerial photo of the Main Group at Copán.
The "North Plaza", the Ball Court and the Petroglyph Staircase can be seen sorrounded by trees.   

At the top of the photo, the course of the Copán river has been diverted to protect the ruins.

Features of The Main Group

There are far too many interesting and important features on the site to describe all of them.  Below are descriptions and photographs of the more prominent ones.

The North Plaza (or Plaza of the Stelae)

The Great Plaza is home to tome of the most beautiful examples of sculpture in Copán.

Structure 4 at Copan

Structure 4, as seen when entering the Main Group from the main entrance to the site.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Stela F at Copan

Stela F and its associated altar.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Stela F at Copan (East face)

Petroglyphs and decorations on the east side of Stela F.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Great Plaza at Copan

The Great Plaza as seen from the north-east corner of the grandstands.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Altar G at Copan

The two-headed monster is 1 of 3 structures that make up Altar G.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Altar G at Copan

The east-facing head of the two-headed monster. A human figure can be seen emerging from the monster's mouth.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Altar G at Copan

One of the other two "twin" sculputures that make up Altar G.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Great Plaza at Copan

The Great Plaza as seen from the south-east.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Stela C at Copan

Eastern face of Stela C, in the Great Plaza.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Steal C

Western face of Stela C, in the Great Plaza.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Structure 2 and Stela D at Copan

A group formed by Structure 2, Stela D, and the Earth and Sky monster hold the northern sector of the Great Plaza.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Earth-Sky monster at Copan

North face of the Earth and Sky monster.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Earth-Sky monster at Copan

South face of the Earth and Sky monster.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

 

 

Petroglyph Staircase

The single most important feature of the site is probably the Petroglyph Staircase:  a stone staircase built on the side of a 30-meter high pyramidal structure.  It is not only impressive due to its sheer size and artistic value, but also because it is actually a historical document built on a monumental scale.  The stone blocks that make up the staircase contain 2200 petroglyphs and together are the single longest text ever found in pre-Columbian America.  Unfortunately, when the structure was found by early archeological expeditions in the XIX century, it was in a state of extreme decay and was re-assembled with neither any understanding of the Maya language nor any knowledge of the correct sequence of the stone blocks.   Today, nobody knows with certainty what great story the staircase was meant to narrate.  What is known is that it is a story about the 16 kings of Copán, starting with Yax K'uk Moh at the bottom step and ending with the death of "18 Rabbit" at the 61st step at the top.  It is believed that the story does place emphasis on the 12th king, K'ak Uti Ha K'awiil, whose burial was found deep inside the pyramid that supports the staircase.  It is also known that construction of the staircase was started by the 14th ahau of Copán, K'ak Joplaj Chan K'awiil, and was completed in 753A.D. by the 15th king of Copán, K'ak Yipyaj Chan K'awiil.

Artist's rendition of the Petroglyph Staircase

Rendition of the Petroglyph Staircase at Copán,
as it could have looked like around 800AD.

Painting by T. Proskouriakoff

Petroglyph Staircase at Copán

The Petroglyph Staircase and Stela M, today.  
They are kept covered to prevent rain damage.

Photo by Juan Bendeck

Petroglyph-staircase-Copán

The Petroglyph Staircase, today.

Photo by ThisIsHonduras

The Ball Court

Another interesting feature of the Copán site is the known as the Ball Court:  two stone buildings, similar to shallow and elongated pyramids, aligned parallel to and facing each other to flank a rectangular area on the ground between them, were Maya warriors played a sacred and fierce ball game filled with religious symbolism.  This type of ritualized game was common in Mesoamerican cultures and every city had a ball court (sometimes more than one), with the rules of the game changing slightly from city to city and also over time.  The architecture of the ball court itself would change as well to accommodate for this, which means that no two ball courts in Mesoamerica are exactly identical.

View of Structure 9, part of the Ball Court at Copán.

Photo by Juan Bendeck

Copán-ball-court

The Ball Court at Copán.  Structures 9 and 10 (partially) can be seen, as well as Stella 2 and Altar L, and "The North Plaza", in the background.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

 

Copán ball court (southwest view)

Southwest view of the Ball Court at Copán

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

Ball Court at Copan

The Ball Court at Copán, much as the players would have seen it.

Photo by Aníbal Villatoro

The ball court that stands today at Copán is not the original one.  Arqueologists have found evidence of two older ballcourts in approximately the same location, the first one built during Yax K'uk Mo's lifetime, in the V century A.D.  The existing ball court was built during "18 Rabbit"'s reign.

Altar Q

One of the most important pieces found at Copán is known as Altar Q.  Its importance lies in that not only is one of the most elaborate and beautiful examples of Maya artwork found on the site, but also in that it is a complete historical document that depicts 16 of the 17 kings of Copán in carved stone.

Altar Q at Copán

Replica of Altar Q in the Acropolis of Copán

Photos by ThisIsHonduras

Altar Q was commisioned by Yax Pasaj Chan Choat, 16th ruler of Copán, and was dedicated in 775A.D.  The top of the altar is a flat square surface carved with petroglyphs narrating the arrival of Yax K'uk Moh at Copán in 426A.D. and his assention to power.

Each of the four vertical faces of the altar shows 4 ahaus.  At the center of the west face, Yax Pasaj is seen receiving a staff from Yax K'uk Moh, the founder of the dynasty.  Then, starting from Yax K'uk Moh's left and moving around to the north, east, south faces, and then back to west face, the other 14 ahaus of the dynasty are shown in chronological order, all seated together as if they were alive at the same time and gathered for a meeting.  Thus, the altar does not depict a real historical event, but cleverly and simultanesously accomplishes two things for Yax Pasaj:  it graphically reinforces his right to the throne by depicting all of his predecessors in sequence, while symbolically linking him directly with the founder of the dynasty.

The Museums

The Visitor's Centre

At the entrance to Copán's main archeological park, there is a visitor's centre that doubles as a museum, though it is relatively small.  One very interesting item to be viewed at the Centre is a very detailed scale model of Copán's "Main Group", as it would have looked in the IX century.

Visitors_centre_at_Copan

Visitor's centre at the entrance to the archeological park at Copán.

Photo by Juan Bendeck

Copán-scale-model-view-A

Northwest view of the scale model of The Main Group of Copán, at Copán's Visitor's Centre

Photo by ThisIsHonduras

Copán-scale-model-view-B

Southeast view of the Scale model of The Main Group of Copán, at Copán's Visitor's Centre. This side of the model even shows the damage caused by the Copán river.

Photo by ThisIsHonduras

Sculpture Museum

The largest and newest museum, located on the western edge of the Main Group.  It houses a variety of monumental Maya works of art, both originals and reproductions.  The "piéce de résistance" in this museum is a complete, full-size, full-color replica of Rosalila.

Entrance to Sculpture Museum

Entrance to the Sculpture Museum at Copán

Photo by Juan Bendeck

Full-scale replica of Rosalila

The centerpiece of Copán's Sculpture Museum: a full-scale replica of "Rosalila"

Photo by ThisIsHondruas

Archeological Museum

There is an older museum in the heart of the town of Copán Ruinas, in front of the town's plaza.  The exhibits in this museum focus on the history of the Mayan culture and the city of Copán itself, as well as showcasing works of Mayan stone sculpture and pottery.  Two important pieces stand out in this museum: the original Altar Q and a reproduction of the lavish burial of a Mayan tribal healer - which includes pieces of pottery, seashells, and the remains of a sacrificed jaguar.

Copan shaman burial

In the museum in the town of Copán Ruinas,

the burial of a Maya tribal healer quietly waits for your visit.

Photo by Juan Bendeck